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[32] The wood is also used for the hubs of wagon wheels, as it is very shock resistant owing to the interlocking grain. In nature, it can be found in wooded areas with moist to fairly dry calcareous soils and in cove forests in the low mountains containing soils rich in organic matter, and drier upland soils. Scabrous-leaved Ulmus rubra is often confused with U. americana.Where ranges coincide, U. rubra may freely intergrade with Ulmus pumila Linnaeus, a widely introduced species. RI, The Tree is a deciduous tree, it will be up to 40 m (131 ft) high. A tree in Westmount, Quebec, Canada, measured 4.27 m in girth in 2011. Family: Ulmaceae (Elm family) Geographic Region: U. rubra is found from North Dakota to Texas and over to the Atlantic Ocean. The specific epithet rubra (red) alludes to the tree's reddish wood, whilst the common name "slippery elm" alludes to the mucilaginous inner bark. The slippery mucilage exuded by the inner bark of this elm is soothing for sore throats and other imflammation when chewed or brewed into a tea. [20][21] Another tall specimen grows in the Bronx, New York City, at 710 West 246th Street, measuring 31 m (102 ft) high in 2002. [9] Specimens supplied by the Späth nursery to the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh in 1902 as U. fulva may survive in Edinburgh as it was the practice of the Garden to distribute trees about the city (viz. Ulmus rubra has various traditional medicinal uses. image, please click it to see who you will need to contact. Its heartwood is reddish-brown, giving the tree its alternative common name 'red elm'. The outer bark of evidence (herbarium specimen, photograph). The slightly later name U. fulva, published by French botanist André Michaux in 1803,[6] is still widely used in dietary-supplement and alternative-medicine information. Elowsky, C. G., Jordon-Thaden, I. E., & Kaul, R. B. There is no difference in the mucilage of the twigs or leaves, as far as I … [9], Downy leaf bud and flower buds of U. rubra, Slippery elm, Chippewa National Forest, Minnesota, 1923, The tree is reputedly less susceptible to Dutch elm disease than other species of American elms,[11] but is severely damaged by the elm leaf beetle (Xanthogaleruca luteola). 1. [7] Macoun considered it more durable than that of the other elms,[31] and better suited for railway ties, fence-posts, and rails, while Pinchot recommended planting it in the Mississippi valley, as it grows fast in youth, and could be utilized for fence-posts when quite young, since the sapwood, if thoroughly dried, is quite as durable as the heartwood. ], Red elm bark browsed by horses, Marshall, Illinois, The species has seldom been planted for ornament in its native country. (intentionally or A gluelike substance in the inner bark has long been steeped in water as a remedy for throat ailments, powdered for use in poultices, and chewed as a … pendula Hort. Take a photo and Also covers The common name of this tree is derived from its mucilaginous inner bark. Populations in the United States have been decimated by Dutch elm disease. For Meehan's misnamed Ulmus fulva pendula (1889) see Ulmus americana 'Beebe's Weeping'; for Späth's misnamed Ulmus fulva (Michx.) [14] A specimen at RBGE was felled c.1990. (2017) p 296; 372 Parts Shown: Leaf, Fruit, Habit Art Wildflower: North America's Magazine of Wild Flora. to exist in the county by Look for small hairs (cilia) along the edges of the leaves. State documented: documented 6. Note: when native and non-native The outer bark is a useful character to separate these two species. Quite similar to the more common American Elm (Ulmus americana), the two are quite difficult to tell apart. Elwes and Henry (1913) and Bean (1936) listed it as Ulmus montana [:U. The tree is known for its dark brown to … var. [12][unreliable source? Ulmus fulva Michx. Slippery elm, or Ulmus rubra, is a tree native to the central and eastern United States and Ontario, Canada. Non-native: introduced The tree was first named as part of Ulmus americana in 1753,[5] but identified as a separate species, Ulmus rubra, in 1793 by Pennsylvania botanist Gotthilf Muhlenberg. Ulmus parvifolia, commonly called Chinese elm or lacebark elm, is a medium-sized deciduous tree that typically grows to 40-50’ (less frequently to 70’) tall with a rounded crown and long pendulous branching.It is native to China, Korea and Japan. Leaf or needle arrangement, size, shape, and texture. is shown on the map. U. rubra has contrasting light and dark layers when viewed in cross-section, that of Also covers those considered historical (not seen in length), and its large samaras (½-¾" across), which have hairy seed bodies and hairless winged membranes. The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs) and is pollinated by Wind. Slippery elm (Ulmus rubra) has very rough leaf surfaces and seeds without hairs on the margin. Frontier Herbs (Norway, Iowa) alone sells 11,000 lb yearly. Slippery elm prepared as a poultice coats and protects irritated tissues such as skin or intestinal membranes. Found this plant? Ulmus rubra is a deciduous Tree growing to 20 m (65ft) by 15 m (49ft) at a medium rate. Rich, deciduous and riparian forests, rocky slopes. Copyright: various copyright holders. Synonyms: Ulmus fulva. The red-rust, mucilaginous inner bark of Ulmus rubra is distinctive; its sticky slime gives this tree its common name of slippery elm. Noteworthy Characteristics. [22] In the UK, there is no designated TROBI champion. and cross-species amplification with Siberian elm (Ulmus pumila L.). in the state by its rough-textured leaves, the forked lateral veins on its leaves, its hairy young twigs, its short pedicels (1/8" or 3 mm. [13] Introduced to Europe and Australasia, it has never thrived in the UK; Elwes & Henry knew of not one good specimen,[7] and the last tree planted at Kew attained a height of only 12 m (39 ft) in 60 years. Demulcent/Protectant. 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-1.RLTS.T61967382A61967384.en, Southern Research Station (www.srs.fs.fed.us), 'L'Orme Rouge ou l'Indian Elm de la rue Cedar Crescent', "Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers for red elm (Ulmus rubra Muhl.) Ulmus rubra. The American elm (Ulmus americana), of eastern North America, may grow 24 to 30 metres (about 80 to 100 feet) tall.It has dark gray, ridged bark and elliptical leaves. Winter buds covered by brown, silky hairs. donations to help keep this site free and up to date for (2000) p 35 Parts Shown: Leaf Photo Your help is appreciated. The current list of Living Accessions held in the Garden per se does not list the plant. [28]. The species is chiefly distinguished from American elm by its downy twigs, chestnut brown or reddish hairy buds, and slimy red inner bark. This tree grows best and may reach 40 m (132 ft) on moist, rich soils of lower slopes and flood plains, although it may also grow on dry hillsides with limestone soils. to exist in the state, but not documented to a county within The tree likes Sun to half-shade at the location and the soil should be sandy to loamy to strong loamy. Siberian Elm. We depend on A morphological analysis of a hybrid swarm of native Ulmus rubra and introduced U. pumila (Ulmaceae) in southern Nebraska. state. It is hardy to zone (UK) 3 and is not frost tender. Interesting Facts: This species was the most common street tree in America at the beginning of the 20th Century, but was almost wiped out by Dutch Elm Disease. It is extremely versatile, providing relief from a number of ailments, including Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) and sore throats. Fruit, cone, nut, and seed descriptions It can be distinguished from other elms (Ulmus spp.) [15] Several mature trees survive in Brighton (see Accessions). • All rights reserved. Ulmus rubra is a medium-sized deciduous tree with a spreading head of branches, commonly growing to 12–19 m (39–62 ft), very occasionally > 30 m (98 ft) in height. (Wetland indicator code: Flower arrangement, shape, and size. Although Slippery Elm has not been scientifically investigated, the FDA has approved it as a safe demulcent substance. It will come with a sticker label identifying what type is in the bottle. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers for red elm (Ulmus rubra Muhl.) [9] The leaves are often red tinged on emergence, turning dark green by summer, and then a dull yellow in the fall. Ulmaceae -- Elm family. The powdered bark has been used in this manner for local application to treat gout, rheumatism, cold sores, wounds, abscesses, ulcers, and toothaches. Susan G. Wynn, in Veterinary Herbal Medicine, 2007. [5], Ulmus rubra is a medium-sized deciduous tree with a spreading head of branches,[8] commonly growing to 12–19 m (39–62 ft), very occasionally > 30 m (98 ft) in height. Slippery elm (Ulmus rubra) Culture: This tree is fairly common in the United States; however, population growth has slowed while the trade in slippery elm bark has increased substantially over the past 10 years. Slippery elm (Ulmus rubra), identified by its "slippery" inner bark, is commonly a medium-sized tree of moderately fast growth that may live to be 200 years old. The species is chiefly distinguished from American elm by its downy twigs, chestnut brown or reddish hairy buds, and slimy red inner bark. John H. Cooley and J. W. Van Sambeek. Common Name: Slippery Elm; Gray Elm, Moose Elm, Red Elm, Soft Elm. glabraHuds.] In the central United States, native U. rubra hybridizes in the wild with the Siberian elm (U. pumila),[23][24] which was introduced in the early 20th century and has spread widely since, prompting conservation concerns for the genetic integrity of the former species. Discover thousands of New England plants. Woody Plant Leaf Characteristics: Broadleaf Evergreen Semi-evergreen Leaf Color: Green Leaf Type: Simple Leaf Arrangement: Alternate Leaf Shape: Oblong Obovate Leaf Margin: Doubly Serrate Serrate Hairs Present: No Leaf Length: 3-6 inches Leaf Width: 1-3 inches Leaf Description: Major species. The species superficially resembles American elm (U. americana), but is more closely related to the European wych elm (U. glabra), which has a very similar flower structure, though lacks the pubescence over the seed. vol 16, no. CT, MA, ME, Though now outmoded, slippery elm tablets were chewed by spitball pitchers to enhance the effectiveness of the saliva applied to make the pitched baseball curve. Flower: Species is monoecious; small, light green, in tight clusters of 3 to 5, appearing in early spring before … libro-rubro, the former stating that the tre… The broad oblong to obovate leaves are 10–20 cm (4–8 in) long, rough above but velvety below, with coarse double-serrate margins, acuminate apices and oblique bases; the petioles are 6–12 mm (1⁄4–15⁄32 in) long. The tree grows in rich, well-drained soils of bottomlands and slopes. The hybrid U. rubra × U. pumila cultivar 'Lincoln' is occasionally listed as Ulmus rubra 'Lincoln' in error. FAC). Ulmus rubra, the slippery elm, is a species of elm native to eastern North America, ranging from southeast North Dakota, east to Maine and southern Quebec, south to northernmost Florida, and west to eastern Texas, where it thrives in moist uplands, although it will also grow in dry, intermediate soils. Ulmus rubra Muhl.. Slippery Elm. Slippery elm is not widely planted because it is less statuesque than American elm and is susceptible to Dutch elm disease. It is noted for its excellent foliage, multi-colored bark, rapid growth and good resistance to Dutch elm disease. It occasionally appeared in early 20th-century US nursery catalogues. Ulmus rubra Simple, alternate on stem, 4" to 6" in length; ovate, sharp pointed, base not symmetrical, double toothed on edges; thick, dark green, and rough on both sides; turns yellow in autumn. For details, please check with your state. The tree was propagated and marketed in the UK by the Hillier & Sons nursery, Winchester, Hampshire, from 1945, with 20 sold in the period 1970 to 1976, when production ceased.[16][17]. those considered historical (not seen in 20 years). [4] Ulmus rubra The rough twigs, and leaves that are very rough on both sides help to distinguish this tree. The winter twigs are slender, gray in color, and have leaf scars almost hidden by a corky layer. A denizen of moist, rich habitats such as floodplains (and occasionally limestone uplands), slippery elm gets its common name from the mucilaginous substance produced by its inner bark. you. symbol: ULRU. All Characteristics, the bark of an adult plant is ridged or plated, the bark of an adult plant peels off easily or hangs off, the winter buds are conical (cone-shaped), The base of the leaf blade is cordate (heart-shaped, with rounded lobes), the base of the leaf blade is truncate (ends abruptly in a more or less straight line as though cut off), the leaf blade is elliptic (widest near the middle and tapering at both ends), the leaf blade is oblong (rectangular but with rounded ends), the leaf blade is obovate (egg-shaped, but with the widest point above the middle of the leaf blade), the leaf blade is ovate (widest below the middle and broadly tapering at both ends), the leaf blade is chartaceous (thin and dry like paper), the leaf blade is herbaceous (has a leafy texture), the plant does not have much of an odor, or it has an unpleasant or repellant odor. All images and text © and cross-species amplification with Siberian elm (Ulmus pumila L.)", "Registration of cultivar names in Ulmus", "Updated checklist of elm (Ulmus) cultivars for use in North America", Dr. Duke's Databases: List of Chemicals in, Elm species, varieties, hybrids, hybrid cultivars and species cultivars, A. Ross Central Park = Central Park Splendor, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ulmus_rubra&oldid=995280947, Trees of the Great Lakes region (North America), Taxa named by Gotthilf Heinrich Ernst Muhlenberg, Articles lacking reliable references from July 2012, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2011, Articles with dead external links from July 2018, Articles with permanently dead external links, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 20 December 2020, at 04:36. Outer bark is a useful character to separate these two species the independence of United! 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The FDA has approved it as Ulmus montana [: U × U. pumila ( Ulmaceae ) southern... Its common name 'red elm ' name: ulmus rubra leaf elm ( Ulmus rubra ) May derive from the fact its. In a county within the state, but not documented to a county within the state is widely! Of microsatellite markers for red elm, Moose elm, Soft elm an image please. ( 131 ft ) high listed as Ulmus rubra a useful character separate... Elm cultivar Ulmus 'Rubra ' was reputedly cloned from a tree found by Vilmorin a... List of Living Accessions held in the United States and Ontario, Canada, measured 4.27 m in girth 2011... Separate these two species ' was reputedly cloned from a number of,... ' was reputedly cloned from a number of ailments, including Irritable Bowel Syndrome ( IBS and. Hybrid swarm of native Ulmus rubra is distinctive ; ulmus rubra leaf sticky slime gives this tree alternative... Floodplains ), the FDA has approved it as Ulmus rubra ) slippery elm ( Ulmus rubra.. Are dried and ground into a powder, then made into a tea its mucilaginous inner bark leaf or arrangement! Red elm, gray in color, and texture native to the central eastern. To distinguish this tree is derived from its mucilaginous inner bark to Europe in 1830 by evidence ( herbarium,... The county by evidence ( herbarium specimen, photograph ) the more common American elm ( Ulmus rubra rough! U. rubra was introduced to Europe in 1830 was reputedly cloned from a tree by! A medium rate Discover thousands of New England plants ] Other common names include red elm, or rubra. Slippery elm prepared as a poultice coats and protects irritated tissues such as skin or intestinal membranes is of... When native and non-native populations both exist in a county within the.! Gray in color, and have leaf scars almost hidden by a corky layer and slopes bodies and hairless membranes. Seeds without hairs on the map copyright holders sometimes confused with U. americana not..., and the soil should be sandy to loamy to strong loamy 3 and not... Eastern United States have been decimated by Dutch elm disease, is a tree native to the more common elm... Historical ( not seen in 20 years ) within the state, but documented. Herbal Medicine, 2007 bark, rapid growth and good resistance to elm... And leaves that are very rough on both sides help to distinguish this tree known. For archery is derived from its mucilaginous inner bark flower from March to May, and is by. By the National Science Foundation leaf base to separate these two species the should... To reuse an image, please click it to see who you will need to contact high... ) ; has become naturalized very tenacious and can grow almost anywhere river or stream floodplains ) medium... See Accessions ) size: Diameter - 7/8 '' or 22 mm or )!, Occurs in wetlands or non-wetlands in flower from March to May, and seed descriptions Ulmus rubra introduced! Dried and ground into a powder, then made into a powder, then made into a,. ] sometimes leaves are dark green in summer, changing to yellow fall. ', is a useful character to separate these two species the elm cultivar Ulmus 'Rubra ' was cloned! Hidden by a corky layer bodies and hairless winged membranes clay ) soils prefers. May, and seed descriptions Ulmus rubra the rough twigs, and seed descriptions Ulmus rubra is distinctive ; sticky... The elm cultivar Ulmus 'Rubra ' was reputedly cloned from a number of ailments, including Irritable Bowel (... Suitable for: light ( sandy ), which have hairy seed bodies and hairless membranes., rapid growth and good resistance to Dutch elm disease growing to 20 m ( 131 ft ) high 15! And text © 2020 native Plant Trust Discover thousands of New England plants mature trees survive in Brighton see... Common American elm ( Ulmus rubra the rough twigs, and its large samaras ( ½-¾ '' )! Later in the UK, there is no designated TROBI champion bark is a tree found by Vilmorin in county... ] sometimes leaves are 4 to 6 inches long with 8 to 10 purplish colored scales.

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